Importance of Hajj in Islam

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  •   Nimra Saleem
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Hajj (Hadj) or Pilgrimage to Mecca is obligatory on Muslims. Importance of Hajj (Pilgrimage) and Umrah in Islam can be understood by this that Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam.
Importance of Hajj in Islam

Importance of Hajj in Islam

Hajj is one of most important pillars of Islam and it is one of greatest religious duties.

Holy Qur’an says in a short and meaningful sentence:

                                        وَ لِلّه عَلَى النّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَیْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطاعَ اِلَیْهِ سَبیلاً.

It is on people for the sake of Allah to perform Hajj of his house, anyone who is able to undertake the journey to him. (2:196)

And it says below this verse:

                                       وَ مَنْ کَفَرَ فَاِنَّ اللّهَ غَنِىٌّ عَنِ الْعالَمینَ

And anyone who disbelieves (and renounces Hajj, has impaired himself), Allah is not in need of any of his created ones in the worlds.”(3:97)

The sentence “It is on people for the sake of Allah …” adding the definition of “disbelieves” (infidelity) for people who renounce the obligatory Hajj. This clears shows it’s extraordinary importance in Islam.

It is interesting that in the interpretation of the holy verse:

                                      وَ مَنْ کانَ فى هذِهِ اَعْمى فَهُوَفِى الاْخِرَةِ اَعْمى وَ اَضَلُّ سَبیلاً.

And anyone who had been blind (from seeing Allah) in this world, will be blind in hereafter and more deviant from the path”. (17:72)

It has been quoted from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that one of the meanings of the verse is that a person who postpones his obligatory Hajj continuously until his death arrives (he will be blind in hereafter).

It has been mentioned in another Hadith: “Anyone who renounces his obligatory Hajj without any excuse will be re awoken as Jew or Christian”

We read in a Hadith from Imam Sadiq (a.s.): “Persons who perform Hajj and Umrah are guests of Allah. He will grant them their wishes and any prayer that they recite will be accepted. And if they pray for intercession about a person it will be accepted … and if they die in this way Allah will forgive all of their sins”.

Also, we read in another Hadith that:

                          اِنَّ الْحَجَّ المَبْرُورَ لا یَعْدِلُهُ شَىءٌ وَ لا جَزاءَلَهُ اِلاَّ الجَنَّة.

Nothing compares with the accepted Hajj and it has no reward other than heaven!”

                           وَ اَنَّ الْحاجَّ یَکُونُ کَیَوم وَلَدَتْهُ اُمُّه.

A Person who performs Hajj purifies himself from sins like the day that he was born”.

And this is the greatest gift, and the best honor and the highest reward.

Secrets of the Hajj

Undoubtedly, there are great rewards as mentioned above. However there are also harsh penalties that have been mentioned, in holy Qur’an and hadeeth, for renouncing the Hajj. This is because of the secrets and important philosophies that this great Islamic worship has.

The holy Qur’an says in a short and meaningful sentence about Hajj that:

                                                                                  لِیَشْهَدُوا مَنافِعَ لَهُم

(Encourage people to perform Hajj) That they may witness advantages for them (22:28)

These benefits are so much and have been pointed to them in hadith of Ma’soomin (infallibles) (a.s.), for instance:

1 Culturing the souls, purifying of ethics and strengthening the bases of virtue and purity. The sentence which had been mentioned in above Ahadith, stating that an accepted Hajj causes a person to exit his sins like the day that he was born, is a clear proof for influence of Hajj on purity of heart and happiness of the souls and removing the effects of sins of a lifetime. This great moral and intellectual journey benefits the pilgrims of Bait Allah al-Haraam (sacred house of Allah).

One may note carefully to the secrets of acts and rites that they perform, in order that each step that they go through is a step to Allah this great and meaningful worship becomes like a “rebirth” for them.

Those who perform this great spiritual worship by noticing to its secrets and with extreme purity of intention feel its deep effects on their soul until the end of life, and whenever they remember the memories of this spiritual journey and its full of spirituality, happiness and purity they feel a new and fresh soul is being blown in them (this is the teaching and moral effect of Hajj).

2 “Political effects” which are available beside the teaching effects of Hajj are very Important; because Hajj, if performed as Islam has ordered and Prophet Abraham has invited people of the world to do, causes to increase the honor of Muslims and strengthen the basis of religion and causes the unity of the word and power and respect against enemies and announcing the avoidance of polytheists of the world.

This great divine assembly which takes place beside the house of Allah gives the best opportunity to Muslims for reviving their powers, and neutralizing the plans of enemies of Islam.

But unfortunately, some of Muslims are unaware of political philosophy of Hajj, as they do not reach to the depth of its moral philosophy. They suffice only to the appearances and are unaware of the soul of this great worship. A politician once commented: “Woe betide Muslims if they do not understand the meaning of Hajj, and woe betide enemies of Islam if Muslims understand the meaning of Hajj!”

3 “Scientific and cultural effects” are other important effects of Hajj which had been pointed to us in hadith of infallibles (a.s.), Effects and signs of prophet of Islam (s.a.) and infallible Imams (a.s.) can be seen in any place of Mecca and Medina and stations of Hajj.

The presence of great Islamic scientists from all countries, consisting of great religious scholars, masters of other fields, orators and writers, amongst those who are attending Hajj every year, give an opportunity to exchange information and knowledge in all religious and scientific fields to all Muslims of the world. Moreover a good amount of information about the conditions of Muslims can be achieved. This information can help in alleviating the conditions of Muslims.

4 “Economical philosophy” has been also considered in Islamic books as one of secrets and purposes of Hajj. Some people may be wondering on how Hajj can be related to economical matters?

However we notice that today, the most important problem of most Muslims is their economical dependence to enemies of Islam, and if it is possible to establish meetings and seminars by economists of the world of Islam, to free Muslims from domination of others in this issue, the importance of this matter becomes clear.

Hajj has important secrets as

Conditions of Necessity of Hajj

Hajj is obligated to be performed, by a Muslim, once in a lifetime. One must be;

1- An adult

2- Sane

3- Having provisions for the journey e.g. Transporation, accomodation food cost

4- Having the permission to travel and not having any difficulty in the way, like fear of life, assets or honor.

5- Having physical abilities for performing the acts of Hajj.

6- Having enough time for reaching Mecca and performing the acts.

7 Having enough savings to support the cost of living of family members left behind and any other person under the pilgrim’s charge, when the pilgrim goes for Hajj.

8- Having a job or business that the pilgrim can resume after returning from Hajj. Pilgrim should be able to be financially able for day to day expenses for himself and those who are under his support e.g. family.

Hajj is obligatory for a person when he has enough money for buying a house. However if the needs are not being sufficed without owning a house; but if the person can live in a rental house or Waqf (inalienable religious endowment) house, then the person can perform Hajj by having that kind of house.

Whenever a person does not have enough money for going to Mecca, but another person gives him the money for performing Hajj and also this person pays the costs of his family during this pilgrimage, then Hajj is obligatory for him. Even he has debts or does not have a job or business for paying the costs of living.

Accepting such a gift is obligatory; unless that person puts him under severe moral obligation by accepting this gift or there is a loss or intolerable hardness in accepting that gift.

A Person who has been employed for serving in the journey of Hajj as the religious leader or manager or deputy of caravan or member of the staff or physician and nurse or disciplinary agent or bank authority or any other occupation, and has performed Hajj in this way, it is considered as an obligatory Hajj, on one condition that the costs of living of the family or dependants has been provided during the journey; but accepting such an employment is not obligatory.

A person who can perform Hajj by borrowing money is not able to perform Hajj, even if he can pay later his whole debt at once or by installments, unless he has assets that can pay his debt from them easily.

It is not permitted to perform Hajj by Haraam (illegally acquired) money or the money from which Khums has not been paid. If the money for Ihram clothing and Tawaf and Sa’y or payment for sacrifice or the cost of camp and floor covering that the pilgrim stays on t in Arafat and Mena is Haraam, then his Hajj is invalidated as a precaution.

Whenever a person registers for Hajj and thereafter dies or his physical ability is greatly reduced and he is not able to perform the Hajj any more, and in condition of his death, the receipt of registration belongs to his heirs, on the condition that he had not been able to perform Hajj in a way other than registration.

The money that is given for registration has no Khums, if it is from the income of the same year.

above, which can be further explained in separate topics and taught to all Muslims especially the younger generation.

Mustahab Hajj

It is Mustahab (recommended) for persons who are not able to perform Hajj or do not have other conditions or have performed obligatory Hajj, to perform Hajj and it is Mustahab to perform it every year. But if due to extreme congestion of Hajjis there is a interruption for people who have not performed their obligatory Hajj yet, then it is preferred not to perform Mustahab Hajj.

It is also preferred to give turns to persons who have not performed obligatory Hajj and want to perform for the first time; but if (assumably) the house of Allah has enough places remaining for Hajjis for one year then it is obligatory for the religious governor to send groups of people for performing Hajj even if they have already performed their obligatory Hajj.

Permission of the husband is not necessary for the wife to perform obligatory Hajj, but the permission is necessary when wife wants to perform Mustahab Hajj. Also if Mustahab Hajj is bringing hardship and hurt to father or mother then there is a problem.

Hajj by Proxy

It is permitted to deputize a person for performing obligatory or Mustahab Hajj on behalf of a dead person, but it is only permitted in Mustahab Hajj for a person who is alive.

However for those who have been able to perform Hajj and had not performed so because of carelessness and now that they are not able to perform Hajj according to their oldness, illness or inability, in this condition it is obligatory for them to take a proxy; but if when a person has financial ability in the time that has no more physical ability or the way is not open for him, then Hajj is not obligatory for him, also taking a proxy is not obligatory, even during lifetime or after the death.

A woman could be a proxy on behalf of a man and vice versa, and each of them should observe their own duties in this kind of Hajj; if the proxy is a woman then she should perform duties that is ascribed for women and if the proxy is a man then he should perform duties ascribed for men, but it is better for women to be proxies of women and for men to be proxies of men.

It is not permitted for a person, on whom Hajj is obligatory for him/her to be someone else’s proxy; but if this person performs this act, the Hajj is correct for other person who has deputized him/her although the person has performed a sin. A person who is not able by himself/herself can be someone’s proxy, but does not gain the ability by reaching Mecca in this way.

Whenever a person is deputized for performing Hajj and the year of pilgrimage has not been specified then he/she should perform Hajj in the first year.

It is permitted to take a proxy for performing obligatory Hajj in behalf of a dead person from “Miqat” and the money of this act subtracted from the main inheritance. However if the heir agrees then it is permitted to take a proxy for performing Hajj from the city (the city which dead person had lived in) but the margin of costs between Hajj from Miqat and city can only be paid by the adult heirs.

The “Proxy” should know the issues and rituals of Hajj, but it is not necessary that he/she has performed Hajj before. People such as servants of a caravan or alike who know from the beginning that they cannot meet Mash’ar voluntarily cannot accept to be a proxy.

Hajj of Nazr (an offering; to make a spiritual vow)

Whenever a sane and adult person performs Nazr (make a spiritual vow) purposely and by free will for performing Hajj, then Hajj is obligatory for that person. But the Nazr of a wife, if it has a contradiction with her rights, is not permitted without the permission of her husband, and if it has no such contradiction then it is in order.

Whenever a person does Nazr for performing Hajj and does not specify a time for that, then this person can delay. However if he/she had specified the time, then it is obligatory for him/her to perform Hajj in that specific time and if the person does not perform that purposely he/she should pay its compensation and perform it in another time as a precaution.

Whenever a person does Nazr for performing Hajj on the condition of achieving a goal and this person dies before achieving that goal, then Ghazaa (performing an act in a time other than its proper time for compensation) of Nazr is not necessary. But if he/she dies after achieving that goal then his/her heirs should perform Ghazaa of that Nazr in behalf of that dead person, or take a proxy for him, and as a precaution it is better to subtract the amount of money for this act from the main inheritance, with the satisfaction of all heir if they are all adults.

Conditions of Hajj al-Tamattu’

There are five conditions in Hajj al-Tamattu’:

1- Niyyah (Intention) which is that the pilgrim should intend to perform “Hajj al-Tamattu’” for Allah, therefore if this person intends to perform some other type of Hajj or has some doubt about performing “Hajj al-Tamattu’” or other type of Hajj or he/she does not have pure intention for Hajj, then his/her Hajj is not correct.

2- Both “Umrah” and “Hajj” should be performed in months of Hajj (Shawwal, Dhu’l-Qa’dah and Dhu’l-Hijjah), therefore it is not enough that a pilgrim performs all of Umrah or a part of it before the month of Shawwal.

3- A pilgrim should perform both “Umrah al-Tamattu”’ and “its Hajj” in one year, if he/she performs one of them in this year, and the next one in another year (even in the months of Hajj), then this Hajj is not correct.

4- As it was mentioned before, Ihram of “Hajj al-Tamattu’” should be worn from Mecca.. There is no difference between different places or regions of Mecca. it can be worn from a house, mosque, or even in a street, but the best place for wearing Ihram is in “Masjid al-Haraam”.

5- If “Hajj al-Tamattu’” is to be performed by proxy, then both “Umrah” and “Hajj” should be performed by the same person and it is not enough that a person performs Umrah and another one performs Hajj.

As an obligatory precaution, the pilgrim should not leave Mecca after performing “Umrah al-Tamattu”’ until the time of Hajj commences and he/she performs Hajj. Unless there is a special necessity or need that in this case as obligatory precaution the pilgrim should wear Ihram with the intention of Hajj and leave Mecca with Ihram and remain in that state in return, until he/she performs the rites of Hajj; but if wearing Ihram causes this person severe hardness then he/she can renounce that act. Then there is no difference in this ruling between obligatory and Mustahab Hajj.

The rule of prohibition of leaving Mecca is for people who have performed Umrah al-Tamattu’ and want to travel a far distance. Therefore going to a distance one or two parasang (each parasang is approximately 5.6 km) far from Mecca is not prohibited and people who live out of Mecca can return to their homes after performing Umrah.

Today, Mecca has advanced to a big city, but all that is called Mecca has the rulings of Mecca , like Masjid al-Haraam that has advanced and expanded. but all of that is within the rulings of Masjid al-Haraam.

Whenever a pilgrim goes out of Mecca after performing Umrah without Ihram and passes the Miqats, then in return he/she should become Muhrim (a person who is in state of Ihram) from Mecca and perform Umrah, unless his/her return is on the same month that he/she has leaved Mecca (for instance, a pilgrim has leaved in Dhu’l-Qa’dah and has returned in Dhu’l-Qa’dah).

A person who has a duty to perform Hajj al-Tamattu’ cannot return to Hajj al-Ifrad or Hajj al-Qiran, unless there is not enough time available in the way that this person cannot finish Umrah and join Hajj. In this case, the pilgrim can leave “Hajj al-Tamattu’” and make intention for Hajj al-Ifrad or Hajj al-Qiran, and performs the duties of Hajj and after finishing Hajj performs Umrah al-Mufradah (similar to other persons who perform Hajj al-Qiran and Ifrad).

The purpose of not having enough time is that pilgrims cannot perform Wuquf in Arafat from noon until the sunset of the day of Arafat.

A woman who has menstruation and cannot perform Tawaf and the prayer of Tawaf, , before the time of Hajj (and Wuquf to Arafa), Therefore she should make intention of Hajj al-Ifrad and go with that Ihram to Arafat and perform the rites of Hajj, and perform the tawafs of Hajj and prayers of tawaf.

After returning to Mecca and becoming clean, she should go to Masjid al-Tan’eem for performing “Umrah al-Mufradah” after finishing Hajj and becomes Muhrim from that place and perform acts of Umrah al-Mufradah. It is better to perform Tawaf al-Nisa’ as a precaution.

There is no problem for women, to prevent their menstruation by using pills or such, in order to perform the rites of Hajj al-Tamattu’ like Tawaf and prayer of Tawaf in the state of being clean.

Miqats (stated places) of Ihram (preparing to perform Hajj)

Miqat is a place which pilgrims should wear Ihram and from there go for Hajj or Umrah. They should not pass these places without Ihram.

Miqats of Ihram are ten places of which five of them are the main ones.

1) Masjid al-Shajarah

Masjid al-Shajarah is located beside Medina, and today it is known as “Abar Ali”. All persons who want to perform Hajj from Medina should become Muhrim from this place, and it is not permitted to delay in this act and for example becomes Muhrim from Juhfah, which is located in the middle of the way of Mecca to Medina, unless ill or weak people or other persons who have other problems.

It is not obligatory to wear Ihram from inside the mosque and it is possible to perform this act beside the mosque, and there is no difference between old mosque and this new one which has been expanded so much, therefore women who are in their menstrual period can wear Ihram outside of the mosque.

2) Mosque In Juhfah

Juhfah is a place in the middle of the distance between Medina and Mecca, 150 km from Mecca, which is some distance from the main road, and this is the Miqat of people who come for Hajj from Egypt, north of Africa, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon (road trip), also all persons who are passing from this way.

Muslims from Iran and other places who enter the airport of Jeddah by airplane and do not want to go to medina can go to Juhfah, and become Muhrim there and then go to Mecca.

There is a mosque in Juhfah, from where it is possible to wear Ihram from inside or outside of that mosque. But it is better to wear Ihram from inside the mosque.

3) Wadi Aqeeq

Wadi Aqeeq is a place located in north east of Mecca approximately 94 km from the city and that is the Miqat for people of “Iraq” and “Najd”, and all people who are passing from that way can become Muhrim from there. This Miqat has three sections; section one is called “Maslakh”, and second one is called “Qumrah” and the third one is called “Dhat Irq” (also Zaat Irq) and although it is better to wear Ihram from “Maslakh”, which is the first section, it is permitted to become Muhrim from any of these three sections.

4- Qarn al-Manazil

Qarn al-Manazil is a place located near “Ta’if” which is about 94 km from Mecca and this is the Miqat for people from there or those who pass from that way. Also all people who enter Jeddah can go to that place and become Muhrim from there.

5- Yalamlam

“Yalamlam” is the name of a hill in southern regions of Mecca (about 84 km from Mecca) and this is the Miqat of those who come from the south parts of Arabian Peninsula like Yemen to Mecca, also all people who pass that way can become Muhrim in there.

There are five main Miqats.

6- The City of Mecca

“Mecca” is the Miqat for “hajj al-Tamattu’”; it means that pilgrims wear Ihram for performing Hajj, in which its first act is going to “Arafat”, after performing Umrah from the city of Mecca.

Article 43 There is no difference between places of Mecca and the pilgrim can become Muhrim from any place of this city, even places that have been added to Mecca today during the advancements of city in the past years. But the place should not be out of the zone of Haram as an obligatory precaution; For example, today Mecca has been expanded and has gone beyond Masjid al-Tan’eem, which is the closest boundary of Haram, and if a person becomes Muhrim from that place which is out of boundaries of Haram, this act is not free of problem and the best place is Masjid al-Haraam.

7- House of the Pilgrim

Miqat for persons whose houses are closer to Mecca than the Miqat, then their own houses can be their Miqat. However, it is permitted and also better than they go to one of those first quintet Miqats and become Muhrim from those places.

8- Ji’irranah

“Ji’irranah” is a place at the end of Haram between Ta’if and Mecca, and people of Mecca and those who have lived there for two years of more, should wear Ihram from this place as an obligatory precaution.

9- Parallel places to one of Miqats

Those who do not pass Miqats should become Muhrim whenever they reach a place parallel to one of the Miqat and it is not necessary to go to one of first quintet Miqats, and if they pass two places parallel to two of Miqats, they should wear Ihram in the first place that is parallel to the first Miqat.

When the pilgrim surely knows the location of the place parallel to Miqat or he/she asks the location from informed people, it is enough for wearing Ihram from that place. But if he/she has doubt about this matter and there is no way of finding the correct answer, then it is better that he/she performs Nazr of Ihram before reaching that place and becomes Muhrim from there.

Whenever a pilgrim is passing from a direction in which there is no place parallel to one of Miqats, then he/she should go to one of Miqats and become Muhrim from there as a precaution; and if this not possible, then he should become Muhrim from a place where there is a possibility of being parallel to one of Miqats, in his/her opinion, and then renew his/her Ihram after reaching the closest point to Haram (around Mecca). This means that the pilgrim makes the intention again and says “Labbayk”.

There is no difference between places, which are parallel to Miqats in being in the desert, sea or air. Therefore, if the pilgrim passes one place parallel to one of Miqats in airplane, then he/she should become Muhrim from that place and immediately says “Labbayk” (and ruling for the matter is that the pilgrim is under a roof in this condition, will be mentioned later)

10- Adni al-Hal

“Adni al-Hal” means the first point out of Haram, and this is the Miqat of those who perform Umrah al-Mufradah (consisting of Umrah of Hajj al-Qiran and Ifrad or Umrah al-Mufradah, which is possible to perform in any time of the year).

It is better for a pilgrim to wear Ihram from one of these three places, “Hudaybiyah” or “Ji’irranah” or “Tan’eem” which are famous among people of Mecca for Umrah al-Mufradah .It is easier for those who want to perform Umrah al-Mufradah after Hajj to go to Masjid al-Tan’eem, (which is about 80 km from Masjid al-Haraam and today has been become as a part of the city of Mecca) and become Muhrim from that place.

Those who are going to Mecca for performing Umrah al-Mufradah from Jeddah should become Muhrim from “Hudaybiyah” (which is about 17 km from Mecca and is the farthest boundary of Haram).

It is better that Ihram of Umrah al-Mufradah also perform from one of first quintet Miqats (Masjid al-Shajarah, Juhfah, Qarn al-Manazil, Wadi Aqeeq and Yalamlam). Therefore, it is better that those who intend to perform Umrah al-Mufradah and went to Medina before, become Muhrim from Masjid al-Shajarah or at least Juhfah.

Briefly, sequence of Miqats is as follows:

1- Miqat of “Umrah of Hajj al-Tamattu’” is one of first quintet Miqats, if the Hajj is obligatory or Mustahab.

2- Miqat of “Hajj al-Tamattu’” is Mecca.

3- Miqat of “Hajj al-Ifrad or Qiran” is one of quintet Miqats.

4- Miqat of “Umrah al-Mufradah” is Adni al-Hal; it means the first point that is out of Haram of Mecca (like Tan’eem, Ji’irranah or Hudaybiyah).

5- Miqat of those whom their own houses are after Miqats is that their houses can become Muhrim from there for Umrah al-Tamattu’ or Hajj al-Ifrad and Qiran, but it is better that they also become Muhrim from one of quintet Miqats.

Process of Ihram

As it is said before, the first act of Umrah and Hajj is “Ihram” and obligatory acts of Ihram are three things as follows:

First: Niyyah (Intention)

Making intention of Ihram as in the way that the pilgrim should intend not to perform the acts (that will be mentioned later) and consider them as Haraam for himself/herself and performs the acts of Umrah or Hajj after that, and by considering that meaning it is enough to say by words or in his/her heart:

“I wear Ihram for Umrah al-Tamattu’ for obligatory (or Mustahab) Hajj for myself (or in behalf of a person whom I am his/her proxy) for closeness to Allah (قربة الی الله)” and the purpose of saying I wear Ihram is to prohibiting himself/herself from the acts (which will be mention later).

And the pilgrim says for Ihram of Hajj: “I wear Ihram for obligatory Hajj for closeness to Allah (قربة الی الله)” and in Umrah al-Mufradah: “I wear Ihram for Umrah al-Mufradah for closeness to Allah (قربة الی الله)”

Second: Saying Labbayk

It is obligatory to say the “quadruple Labbayks” during Ihram with correct Arabic accent and it should be as follows as obligatory precaution:

                          لَبّیْکَاللّهُمَّ لَبَّیْکَ، لَبَّیْکَ لا شَریکَ لَکَ لَبَّیْکَ، اِنَّالْحَمْدَ و النِّعْمَةَ لَکَ وَ الْمـُلْکَ، لا شَریکَ لَکَ.

Allah! I comply (and obey) you, again I comply to you, and one more time I obey you, there is no partner for you, I comply to you, solely you deserve all praise and grace and sovereignty are exclusive to you, there is no partner for you!”

It is better to abstain adding other expressions, except those that will be mentioned in Mustahab acts later.

Third: Wearing Ihram Clothing

It is obligatory for a person who wants to wear Ihram, to remove all clothes which are Haraam for Muhrim, and then wear the two clothes of Ihram. Wrap one of them around the waist (that is called “Izar”) and put another one on the shoulder like Aba (that is called “Rida’”); this ruling is exclusive to men and it is not necessary for women to wear these two parts of clothing beneath or over their own clothes

Acts that are Haraam in the state of Ihram

When a pilgrim becomes Muhrim the following acts are Haraam for him/her to do and some of them have atonement. Some of the Faqihs have mentioned them as twenty-five items, but we believe that some of them are Makrooh (disliked) that its explanation will be mentioned later.

These acts are as follows:

1- Wearing sewed clothing (for men)

2- Wearing a thing which covers all top of the foot (for men)

3- Covering the head (for men)

4- Covering the face (for women)

5- Wearing ornaments

6- Applying mascara and kohl

7- Looking at the mirror

8- Using fragrance

9- Applying oils on the body

10- Cutting the nails

11- Going under the shade during travel (for men)

12- Removing hair from the body

13- Performing marriage

14- Looking at spouse with sexual desire

15- Touching

16- Kissing

17- Performing sexual intercourse

18- Masturbating

19- Killing insects

20 & 21- Extracting tooth and blood from the body

22- Telling lies

23- Disputing

24- Hunting desert animals

25- Carrying weapons

Wearing Sewed Clothing

Wearing clothes like shirt, cassock, trousers and underclothes are Haraam for men in the state of Ihram. And it is an obligatory precaution to abstain from wearing any sewn clothes, woven clothes and clothes that their parts are attached to each other or have made been made like and are in the form of shirt, overcoat, trousers etc., even if it is not sewn and needle and thread have not been used in making them, it is a precaution to abstain from wearing all these clothes.

Wearing a thing which covers all top of the foot (shoes and socks)

Wearing shoes, which covers both the top of the feet like boots and also wearing socks in the state of Ihram is not permitted, even if they cover the shank or not. But if they cover a part of top of the feet, like straps of sandals and shoes (that a part of the top of the feet are shown by wearing them) are permitted. This ruling is exclusive for men and wearing socks and shoes has no problem for women.

Covering the Head for Men

Covering all of the head in the state of Ihram is Haraam for Muhrim men, and the obligatory precaution is that they do not cover even a part of the head. But covering the head with hands or with a pillow during sleep is permitted. Also putting the strap of bag on the head is permitted. Covering the face is permitted for men.

Covering the face for Women

Covering the face is not permitted for women in the state of Ihram; even it is with a mask, fan or any other thing. The obligatory precaution is not to cover the face with mud or such like that.

Covering a part of the face in the way that is not called mask is not Haraam, also covering the face during sleep or putting the face on the pillow or covering it by hands are permitted.It is permitted that a woman pulls her veil down in the way that it shades half or all of her face, even if it sticks to the face or not. But the obligatory precaution is to perform this act only when she wants to cover herself from men and keeps her face open in other conditions (the round of the face can be shown in other than in the state of Ihram).The atonement of covering the face is one sheep for women as obligatory precaution.

Performing Marriage

Performing marriage is not permitted for a Muhrim in the state of Ihram, even if he recites the marriage statement or deputizes another person to do that Even if the marriage is performed permanently or temporarily, marriage is invalidated in this way. If he knows about the prohibitions and stills perform the marriage, then that woman will be Haraam for him forever.

It is also not permitted that a Muhrim recites the statement of marriage for another person, even if that person is in the state of Ihram or not and in this way marriage of that person is also invalidated, but that woman does not become Haraam forever, and in none of these cases, the atonement is obligatory.

It is not permitted for a Muhrim to attend a marriage ceremony as the witness, also (as obligatory precaution) it is not permitted to testify a marriage, or propose for himself or another person.

Mustahab Tawafs

One of the strong affirmed Mustahab acts for people who are in Mecca is Tawaf of the house of Allah that is seven rounds like obligatory Tawaf and a two Rak’ats prayer, performed after that, but it does not include Sa’y of Safa and Marwah.

And this one best worships and it has been mentioned in a Hadith from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that: “There are 120 divine mercies around Ka’ba, out of which half of that is for the ones who perform tawaf and another forty are for those who perform prayers and other twenty are for people who looks at Ka’ba”.

A person can perform this Tawaf on behalf of friends (dead or alive) who are not in Mecca and it is more preferred than several Umrahs that people perform with the intention of Rija’ (hoping for the goodness of the act) .

Mustahab Tawaf is similar to obligatory (Wajib) Tawaf but it differs that in the following items:

1- Purity (Taharah) is not a condition of Mustahab Tawaf, although it is better to perform it with ablution. However ablution is necessary for the prayer of Tawaf.

2- The prayer of Mustahab Tawaf can be performed anywhere in Masjid al-Haraam.

3- Observing the sequence is not necessary in Mustahab Tawaf.

4- Stopping Mustahab Tawaf is permitted without any excuse or necessity, although the person does not want to perform other rounds. But it is obligatory precaution not to stop obligatory Tawaf except the cases of necessity.

5- Doubt about the deficiency of rounds of Mustahab Tawaf is not important and the lesser round could be considered.

6- Qiran (performing two Tawaf after each other immediately, without performing the prayer of Tawaf between them) is not permitted in obligatory Tawaf but it is Makrooh (disliked) in Mustahab Tawaf.

7- Stopping Mustahab Tawaf is permitted in other than the cases of necessity, and it can be continued later from the place that is stopped though it is not necessary to pass the fourth round.

It is better to abstain from performing Mustahab Tawaf when lots of people are performing obligatory Tawaf and crowd is heavily congested. It is better to leave the place of Tawaf for people who are performing obligatory Tawaf.

Mustahab Tawaf has no specific time and can be performed at anytime of the day or night. Also it has no specific numbers for performing but each Tawaf should be performed seven rounds.

Mustahab Tawaf does not need Ihram clothing. Keeping silent or talking or reciting prayers are permitted during that like obligatory Tawaf, although it is better to recite prayers or pray to Allah.

It is not a good act to recite the prayers with the loud voice in the way that it causes distraction for others.

Sa’y of Safa and Marwah

Sa’y of Safa and Marwah is one of the obligatory acts of “Umrah al-Tamattu’” and “Hajj”. It means shuttling between these two small hills, the pilgrim goes from “Safa” to “Marwah” and returns from “Marwah” to “Safa” until seven rounds are completed (shuttling from one to another is considered as one round). Therefore, the pilgrim goes from Safa to Marwah four times and returns three times from that and does not return the fourth time and it becomes seven rounds in this way.

Whenever a person renounces all of the seven rounds or a part of it deliberately, and if this person is performing Umrah al-Tamattu’, and cannot compensate that before Wuquf to Arafat, it is obligatory precaution to convert the Hajj to Hajj al-Ifrad, it means that this person should make the intention of Hajj al-Ifrad and completes the rituals of Hajj, and the next year should perform Hajj al-Tamattu’ again. If a pilgrim renounces Sa’y in Hajj deliberately and cannot compensate that in time, then his/her Hajj in invalidated and should be performed the next year again.

If a person renounces Hajj because of ignorance about the matter, it is obligatory precaution to act to the ruling of renouncing deliberately as it has been mentioned in the previous article; but if a pilgrim forgets to perform Sa’y, then he/she should return and perform that whenever he/she remembers, although it is after the month of Dhu’l-Hijjah, and if returning causes him/her trouble, he/she can take a proxy for performing Sa’y in behalf of the him/her, and nothing is Haraam (from Haraam act of Muhrim) for him/her in this time.

Whenever a pilgrim performs more than seven rounds deliberately with the intention of obligatory Sa’y, then this Sa’y is invalidated and if the pilgrim adds one or more or less than one round to Sa’y involuntarily and then remembers later, he/she need not pay attention to that and his/her Sa’y is correct, and there is no need to complete the added amount up to seven rounds, but it is a precaution not to do this act.

Whenever a pilgrim adds an amount to the seven rounds because of ignorance about the matter, it’s ruling is similar to performing it deliberately; it means that he/she should perform Sa’y again.

Whenever a pilgrim reduces a round from Sa’y because of forgetfulness, and if this has happened before four rounds are completed and then he/she remembers and performs that reduced round, then his/her Sa’y is correct. If this person has gone out of Mecca or has returned to the homeland and returning to Mecca causes him/her trouble, then he/she should take a proxy for performing Sa’y and it has no atonement, although he/she has performed acts that are Haraam for a Muhrim.

Whenever a pilgrim assumes that he/she has completed the Sa’y before Taqsir, he/she should not suffice to this assumption and investigate and if he/she does not remember, then he/she should perform the amount which is not sure about performing that; and if this person performs Taqsir (cuts the hair of the head and the nail) with the assumption of completing Sa’y without the investigation and performs sexual intercourse with his/her spouse it is obligatory precaution to sacrifice a cow (sacrifices in Mecca if it is possible and if it is not possible then sacrifices in the hometown) adding to completing the Sa’y.

Whenever a person is performing Sa’y of Safa and Marwah, and the time of prayer comes, this person should leave Sa’y, perform the prayer and return and complete the rest of Sa’y.

Whenever a necessary need happens for the pilgrim or one of religious brothers and sisters, then this pilgrim can stop Sa’y and go to fulfill the need and continue Sa’y after returning from the place that he/she has stopped and his/her Sa’y is correct. And if a person gets tired, he/she can sit between Sa’y and stands up after the rest and continue Sa’y (if it is in Safa, Marwah or between these two).

It is a precaution to observe the sequence in Sa’y except the cases which have been mentioned before, it means that the pilgrim should perform seven rounds sequentially and without interruption.

Hajj al-Tamattu

As we have mentioned before, Hajj al-Tamattu’ should be performed after Umrah al-Tamattu’ and it has thirteen acts as follows:

1- Wearing Ihram from Mecca.

2- Wuquf which means staying in “Arafat” from about the noon until the sunset of the ninth day of Dhu’l-Hijjah.

3- Wuquf in Mash’ar al-Haraam; it means to stay there from the dawn until the sunrise of Eid of Qurban (festivity of sacrifice).

4- Going to Mena (also Mina) and performing Ramy al-Jamarah al-Aqaba (throwing seven pebbles to the place, which is allocated at the end of Mena that is called “al-Jamarah al-Aqaba or al-Jamarah al-Uula).

5- Sacrificing in Mena in the day of Eid (tenth of Dhu’l-Hijjah).

6- Taqsir that means shaving the head or cutting a piece of hair or nail.

7- Tawaf of Ka’ba (this Tawaf is called Tawaf of pilgrimage).

8- Performing two Rak’ats of prayer of Tawaf.

9- Seven times of Sa’y,(shuttling) between Safa and Marwah.

10- Performing another Tawaf, that is called Tawaf of Nisa’.

11- Performing Two Rak’ats of prayer of Tawaf of Nisa’.

12- Staying the eleventh and the twelfth nights in Mena.

13- Performing Triple Ramy al-Jamarat that means throwing seven pebbles to each of three places, which are situated in Mena in the eleventh and the twelfth days.

Wearing Ihram from Mecca

It has been mentioned before that the Miqat of Ihram for “Hajj al-Tamattu’” is “Mecca”, and there is no difference between places in Mecca. It is enough to be performed from Masjid al-Haraam, other mosques, streets and avenues or houses and there is also no difference between old and new Mecca, even places which have been advanced today to Mena and Arafat, it is possible to wear Ihram from all of these places. But it is obligatory precaution not to wear Ihram from places of Mecca which are farther than “Masjid al-Tan’eem” (Masjid al-Tan'eem is the closest boundary of Haram) and the best place is Masjid al-Haraam.

The best time for wearing Ihram is the eighth day of Dhu’l-Hijjah, but it is possible to do this three days before and go to Mena from there in order to go to Arafat from that place; Old and ill persons can move to that place sooner than this time if they are afraid or congestion of crowd.

The latest time of Ihram of Hajj is the time when delaying causes impossibility of reaching Wuquf to Arafat which is from the noon of the ninth day until the sunset; therefore, the pilgrim can become Muhrim in the morning of the ninth day and go to Arafat on time (if it is possible to reach on time in that conditions).

Wuquf in Arafat

The second act of obligatory acts of Hajj is Wuquf in Arafat. “Arafat” is a desert about 20 km from Mecca which has became semi-treed today and it is obligatory for Hajjis to say the noon of the ninth day of Dhu’l-Hijjah in that place.

It is a precaution to remain from the beginning of noon of the ninth day until the sunset in Arafat, afoot or ride, moving or sitting, awake or partly sleep, and it is Mustahab to pray and observe the pure essence of Allah and asking forgiveness from him in that time, The superiority of praying in this place and time is unequaled

Wuquf in Arafat is worship and should be performed with intention of closeness to Allah, and its intention has no specific statement and having the intention of performing that in the heart is enough.

If a person leaves Arafat before sunset, and if it is because of forgetfulness or ignorance about the matter, then there is nothing on him, but if has done this deliberately, then this person should sacrifice a camel in Mena (and if he/she cannot sacrifice a camel, then he/she should perform eighteen days of fasting) and his/her Hajj is correct.

Whenever a person returns to Arafat before the sunset and stay until sunset in there and then leaves the place, there is no atonement on him in this case.

Although staying in Arafat is obligatory all the time as has been mentioned before, renouncing it is a sin, but it is not one of essentials of Hajj, and the pillar is staying for a while in there. It means that if a person stays a part of the time from noon until sunset in Arafat, then his/her Hajj is correct, but if he/she stays away the whole time then the Hajj is invalidated.

It is obligatory for a person who has not been successful in completing Wuquf in Arafat from noon until sunset, to stay there for some time in the night of Eid. Therefore, when a pilgrim reaches Arafat when people have left there, he/she should stay a part of the night in there on the condition that he/she can reach Mash’ar al-Haraam before the dawn of the day of Eid and this is called “Emergency Wuquf of Arafat”. However if this person couldn’t stay a part of night in Arafat, it is enough for him/her to perceive Wuquf a part of Wuquf in Mash’ar al-Haraam, which will be mentioned later, and his/her Hajj is correct in this way.

Wuquf in Mash’ar al-Haraam

Mash’ar al-Haraam which is also called “Muzdalifah” and “Joma’” is a famous place between Mena and Arafat (its boundaries are the mount Ma'zmein and Hiyadh and Wadi Mohassar) and it is obligatory for those who to go to that place after Wuquf in Arafat and it is precaution not to delay going to that place if it is possible.

Wuquf in Mash'ar al-Haraam is obligatory from the dawn until sunrise and it is also an obligatory precaution to stay the night there and pray to Allah and it is obligatory to have the intention of closeness to Allah for all of these acts.

Leaving Mash'ar without any religious lawful excuse and going to Mena because of ignorance has no problem, but if a person performs this act deliberately, then he/she should pay one sheep as the atonement, but his/her Hajj is correct.

Wuquf in Mash'ar al-Haram is a pillar of Hajj and if a person renounces that deliberately, then his/her Hajj is invalidated.

Although staying all the time between the dawn and the sunset in Mash'ar al-Haraam is obligatory (and even staying the night of Eid is also obligatory as a precaution), but staying the night solely is enough for the correctness of Hajj, but as we said before if this act has been performed deliberately, it is a sin and has the atonement of one sheep.

It is allowed for the below listed to stay a while in Mash'ar and then go to Mena.

1- Women
2- Ill persons
3- Old men
4- All persons who have an acceptable excuse

Therefore, all people who have an excuse can stay a part of the night in Mash'ar and then depart for Mena; so old men, ill persons, children and all those who have to accompany them for nursing or guidance and those who are afraid of congestion of the crowd in the morning of the Eid can go to Mena in the night (after staying a while in Mash'ar al-Haraam and pray to Allah) and perform Ramy al-Jamarat al-Aqaba; but it is Mustahab precaution not to leave Mash'ar before midnight, and it is precaution that guides return to Mash'ar after taking people who are in their charge if it is possible.

Taqsir In Hajj

It is obligatory that the Hajji cuts a part of his/her hair of the head or shaves the head and it is his first Hajj then it is better to shave the head, but it is not obligatory. He/she comes out of Ihram by this act, it means that wearing sewed clothes and other Haraam acts of Ihram become permitted for him except fragrance and women that will become Halaal in the next acts (as will be mentioned).

It is an obligatory precaution for those who have tied their hair or have stuck the hair with some materials to shave the head and it is Mustahab precaution to shave the head for those who are performing Hajj for the first time, but it is permitted to only suffice to cutting a part or shortening the hair of the head; and he has choice between these two acts for the next times; although shaving the head is for men and women are not permitted to shave their heads and only cutting a part of the hair of the head is obligatory.

Cutting the nail is good with the cutting of the hair from the head for men and women; but it is obligatory precaution not to suffice to cutting the nail alone.

It is obligatory to perform the triple acts of Mena in sequence. This means that first- Ramy al-Jamarah al-Aqaba, second- sacrifice and third- shaving the head or cutting a part of the hair of the head and nail. Whenever a pilgrim performs these acts without observing the sequence because of ignorance or forgetfulness then his/her acts are correct, even if he/she does not observe that deliberately, he/she has performed a sin but there is no atonement. Delaying shaving the head or cutting the hair of the head or the nail has no problem until the twelfth day, but it is a precaution not to perform these acts in the night.

It is obligatory to perform shaving or shortening of the hair of the head before Tawaf of Hajj, and if a pilgrim performs Tawaf of Hajj before Taqsir deliberately, then he/she should perform Tawaf after Taqsir again and pay the atonement of one sheep; but if he/she has performed Tawaf before Taqsir because of ignorance or forgetfulness then it is has no atonement, but it is obligatory precaution for him/her to perform Tawaf after Taqsir again.

It is not necessary that the Hajji himself/herself shortens his/her hair of the head and it is enough if he/she orders another person to do that, if that person is Shiite or Sunni and in any way he/she himself/herself should make the intention that for example “I perform the obligatory act of Taqsir for Hajjat al-Islam for closeness to Allah (قربة الی الله)”.

It is obligatory to perform shaving or shortening the hair of the head in Mena and if a person does not perform that deliberately or because of ignorance or forgetfulness, it is obligatory for him/her to return to Mena and perform this duty. And if he/she cannot return or it causes severe hardness for him/her, then he/she should perform that anywhere that he/she is; and it is an obligatory precaution to send his/her hair to Mena and it is Mustahab to bury the hair in Mena.

It is not permitted for those who have not performed Taqsir yet and are still Muhrim to shave the head of another person or shorten his/her hair, but they should perform Taqsir first and then they can do it for the others.

A person who knows that if he/she shaves his/her head, he/she might get injured, then it is a precaution to cut a part of the hair first and then shave the head.

Quintet Obligatory Acts of Mecca

It is obligatory for a Hajji to return to Mecca after performing triple acts of Mena in order to perform the rest of ritual of Hajj which are five things as follows:

1- “Tawaf of Hajj” that is also called “Tawaf of pilgrimage”.

2- “The prayer of Tawaf of pilgrimage”.

3- “Sa’y of Safa and Marwah”.

4- “Tawaf of Nisa’”

5- “The prayer of Tawaf of Nisa’”.

These five acts should be performed exactly as we have said before for Umrah al-Tamattu’ except for intention that is here the intention of Tawaf of Hajj and its prayer and its Sa’y or the intention of Tawaf of Nisa’ and its prayer.

A Hajji can go to Mecca in the day of Eid of Qurban immediately after performing the acts of Mena and performs the above acts in there in that day. And it is better not to delay it to after eleventh day and if this happens, then no longer than the thirteenth day. If it is not impossible to perform these acts until the end of Dhu’l-Hijjah, although it is Mustahab precaution not to delay after the thirteenth day.

Acts of Mecca which are Tawaf of pilgrimage and prayer and Sa’y and Tawaf of Nisa’ and its prayer should be performed after the acts of Mena, but those who can perform them before going to Arafat are;

1- Women who have the fear of involving with menstruation of childbirth and cannot stay until they become pure.

2- Ill persons who are not capable of performing Tawaf and Sa’y in the congestion of the crowd.

3- Old men and women who are incapable performing these acts when returning from Mena because of congestion of the crowd or fear of danger or harm.

4- All persons who know that they are incapable of performing these acts after returning or performing these acts causes them lots of troubles (and there is no difference between Tawaf of Nisa’ and Tawaf of Hajj in this matter).

In case of performing these acts before the acts of Mena, it is an obligatory precaution to become Muhrim to the Ihram of Hajj and then performing the acts.

If an ill person becomes healthy or a woman gets pure after returning from “Mena” and are capable of performing Tawaf and Sa’y then it is obligatory precaution to perform them again.

Tawaf of Nisa’ is obligatory for man, woman, old and young, married and single and even discriminator or neutral children, and without that woman does not become Halaal for man and man does not become Halaal for woman; and it is obligatory precaution that if a person brings a non-discriminator child then his/her guardian performs Tawaf of Nisa’ with him/her.

Tawaf of Nisa’ is not an obligatory Umrah of Hajj al-Tamattu’, but it is obligatory in Hajj al-Tamattu’ and Umrah al-Mufradah.

If a woman is in menstruation before performing Tawaf of Nisa’ and cannot stay until becoming pure (for example when caravan does not wait for her) it is necessary to take a proxy for performing Tawaf of Hajj and its prayer, and then she performs Sa’y and after that takes a proxy for performing Tawaf of Nisa’ and its prayer (also other persons who are not capable of performing Tawaf and Sa’y, should take a proxy).

Tawaf of Nisa’ cannot be performed immediately after Tawaf of Hajj and before Sa’y, but it should be performed after performing Sa’y; but if a person performs that before Sa’y because of ignorance about the matter or forgetfulness, then it is correct.

The things which were Haraam for Hajji in the state of Ihram become Halaal by performing the triple acts of Mena and acts of Mecca in three stages:

1- All Haraam things become Halaal after cutting or shaving the hair of the head, except fragrance and spouse.

2- Fragrance becomes Halaal after performing Tawaf of pilgrimage and the prayer of Tawaf and Sa’y of Safa and Marwah.

3- Spouse becomes Halaal after performing Tawaf of Nisa’ and its prayer.

Staying the Night in Mena (Baytuta in Mena)

It is obligatory for Hajji to stay the eleventh and twelfth night in Mena (and in some cases the thirteenth night is also obligatory) and if he/she stays in any other place in these two night then the atonement is one sheep and it is obligatory to pay the atonement of one sheep for each night.

It is enough to stay half of the night, if it is first or the second half.

It is possible that a Hajji returns to Mecca after the middle of eleventh night for performing the acts of Mecca or returns to Mecca in the day of the Eid after performing the acts of Mena and returns to Mena until the midnight.

Baytuta in Mena also needs to have the intention for closeness to Allah like other acts of Hajj, and it is enough to have in the intention of staying the night in Mena for performing Hajj al-Tamattu’ from Hajjat al-Islam or Mustahab Hajj in the heart.

Whenever a person abstains from performing Baytuta in Mena inevitably or because of an emergency or necessity then there is no sin considered for him/her and also there is no atonement and his/her Hajj is correct.

Some types of people are exempt from staying performing Baytuta in Mena:

1- Old men and women and ill persons and their nurses whose staying in Mena causes them severe hardness.

2- Authorities and servants of caravans in the case that they have to return to Mena for arranging the issues of pilgrims.

3- Those who have fear of danger or harm among the congestion of the crowd when returning.

4- People who are busy all the night performing Tawaf of other worships in Mecca and do not perform any act other than their necessities.

5- Those who have come to Mecca for performing the rituals of Mecca and will return to Mena before the dawn.

Performing Baytuta in the hillsides around Mena (especially in congestion of the crowd) has no problem (also in the hillsides around Mash'ar in the time of Wuquf in Mash'ar at the night of the Eid, but it has problem to stay in the hillsides of the mount “Ma’zmein” which is situated at the beginning of Mash'ar and it is out of the zone of Mash'ar, except the cases of necessity of congestion of the crowd).

Three types of people should stay the thirteenth night in Mena and perform Ramy of triple Jamarat (as obligatory precaution):

1- A person who has hunted an animal in the state of Ihram

2- A person who has performed sexual intercourse with his/her spouse.

3- A person who does not depart from Mena in the twelfth day until the sunset.

Staying the third night in Mena is obligatory in these three conditions, and in other than that the pilgrim can return to Mecca in the twelfth day.

Returning from Mena should be after the Azan of noon in the twelfth day, but those who depart there in the thirteenth day can return before Azan of noon.

Rites of Masjid al-Haraam and Great Mecca

It is Mustahab to perform Ghusl for entering Masjid al-Haraam and it is also Mustahab to enter barefoot and with the state of dignity and entering from the door of “Bani Shaiba” and it is said that the door of Bani Shaiba is currently in front of Baab al-Salaam, therefore it is better than a person enters from Baab al-Salaam and stands at the door of Masjid al-Haraam and says:

اَلسَّلامُ عَلَیْکَ اَیُّهَا النَّبِىُّ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللّهِ وَ بَرَکاتُهُ، بِسْمِ اللّهِ وَ بِاللّهِ وَ مِنَ اللّهِ وَ ما شآءَ اللّهُ، اَلسَّلامُ عَلى اَنْبِیآءِ اللّهِ وَ رُسُلِهِ، اَلسَّلامُ عَلى رَسُولِ اللّهِ، صَلَّى اللّهُ عَلَیْهِ وَ آلِهِ. اَلسَّلامُ عَلى اِبْراهِیمَ خَلیلِ اللّهِ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمِینَ

And then enters the Masjid al-Haraam and raises the hands and says while facing the Ka’ba:

اَللّهُمَّ إِنّی اَسْأَلُکَ فِی مَقامی هذا، وَ فی اَوَّلِ مَناسِکی اَنْ تَقْبَلَ تَوْبَتی، وَ اَنْ تَتَجاوَزَ عَنْ خَطِیئَتی وَ اَنْ تَضَعَ عَنِّی وِزْرِی، اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ الَّذِی بَلَّغَنِی بَیْتَهُ الْحَرامَ، اَللّهُمَّ إِنِّی اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ هذا بَیْتُکَ الْحَرامُ الَّذِی جَعَلْتَهُ مَثابَةً لِلنّاسِ وَ اَمْناً مُبارَکاً وَ هُدىً لِلْعالَمِینَ، اَللّهُمَّ إنّى عَبْدُکَ، وَ الْبَلَدَ بَلَدُکَ، وَ الْبَیْتَ بَیْتُکَ، جِئْتُ اَطْلُبُ رَحْمَتَکَ، وَ اَؤُمُّ طاعَتَکَ، مُطِیعاً لاَِمْرِکَ، راضِیاً بِقَدَرِکَ، اَسْأَلُکَ مَسْأَلَةَ الْفَقِیرِ اِلَیْکَ الْخائِفِ لِعُقُوبَتِکَ، اَللّهُمَّ افْتَحْ لی اَبْوابَ رَحْمَتِکَ، وَ اسْتَعْمِلْنی بِطاعَتِکَ وَ مَرْضاتِکَ

And it is mentioned in another hadith that one should recite at the door of mosque:

بِسْمِ اللّهِ وَ بِاللّهِ وَ مِنَ اللّهِ وَ اِلَى اللّهِ وَ ما شآءَ اللّهُ وَ عَلى مِلَّةِ رَسُولِ اللّهِ، صَلَّى اللّهُ عَلَیْهِ وَ آلِهِ، وَ خَیْرُ الاَْسْمآءِ لِلّهِ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ، وَ السَّلامُ عَلى رَسُولِ اللّهِ، اَلسَّلامُ عَلى مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللّهِ، اَلسَّلامُ عَلَیْکَ اَیُّهَا النَّبِىُّ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللّهِ وَ بَرَکاتُهُ، اَلسَّلامُ عَلى اَنْبِیآءِ اللّهِ وَ رُسُلِهِ، اَلسَّلامُ عَلى خَلِیلِ الرَّحْمنِ، اَلسَّلامُ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِینَ، وَ الْحَمْدُلِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمِینَ، اَلسَّلامُ عَلَیْنا وَ عَلى عِبادِ اللّهِ الصّالِحینَاَللّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّد وَ آلِ مُحَمَّد، وَ بارِکْ عَلى مُحمد و آلِ مُحمد، وَ ارْحَم مُحمداً و آلَ مُحَمَّد، کَما صَلَّیْتَ وَ بارَکْتَ وَ تَرَحَّمْتَ على إبْراهِیمَ وَ آلِ إبْراهِیمَ، إنَّکَ حَمیدٌ مَجِیدٌ/اَللّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّد وَ آلِ مُحَمَّد عَبْدِکَ وَ رَسُولِکَ، اَللّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى إبْراهِیمَ خَلِیلِکَ وَ عَلى أَنْبِیآءِکَ وَ رُسُلِکَ وَ سَلِّمْ عَلَیْهِمْ، وَ سَلامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِینَ، وَ الْحَمْدُلِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمِینَاَللّهُمَّ افْتَحْ لِی أَبْوابَ رَحْمَتِکَ، وَ اسْتَعْمِلْنی فِی طاعَتِکَ وَ مَرْضاتِکَ وَ احْفَظْنِی بِحِفْظِ الاِیمانِ اَبَداً ما اَبْقَیْتَنی، جَلَّ ثَناءُ وَجْهِکَ، اَلْحَمْدُلِلّهِ الَّذِی جَعَلَنی مِنْ وَفْدِهِ وَ زُوّارِهِ وَ جَعَلَنی مِمَّنْ یَعْمُرُ مَساجِدَهُ، وَ جَعَلَنی مِمَّنْ یُناجیهِ اَللّهُمَّ إِنی عَبْدُکَ وَ زائِرُکَ فی بَیْتِکَ وَ عَلى کُلِّ مَأْتِىٍّ حَقٌّ لِمَنْ أَتاهُ وَ زارَهُ، وَ أَنْتَ خَیْرُ مَأْتِىٍّ وَ أَکْرَمُ مَزُور فَأَسْأَلُکَ یا اَللّهُ یا رَحْمنُ بِأَنَّکَ أَنْتَ اللّهُ لا إِلهَ إِلاّ أَنْتَ وَحْدَکَ لاشَریکَ لَکَ بِأَنَّکَ واحِدٌ اَحَدٌ صَمَدٌ لَمْ تَلِدْوَ لَمْ تُولَدْ وَ لَمْ یَکُنْ لَهُ کُفُواً اَحَدٌ، وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُکَ وَ رَسُولُکَ صَلَّى اللّهُ عَلَیْهِ وَ عَلى أَهْلِ بَیْتِهِ یا جَوادُ یا کَریمُ ی ماجِدُ یا جَبّارُ یا کَریمُ أَسْأَلُکَ أَنْ تَجْعَلَ تُحْفَتَکَ إِیّایَ بِزیارَتی إِیّاکَ أَوَّلَ شَىْء تُعْطِیَنی فَکاکَ رَقَبَتی مِنَ النّارِ

Then he/she should recite three times:

                                                أَللّهُمَّ فُکَّ رَقَبتی مِنَ النّارِ

And then say:

                          وَ أَوْسِعْ عَلَىَّ مِنْ رِزْقِکَ الْحَلالِ الطَّیِّبِ وَ ادْرَأْعَنّی شَرَّ شَیاطِیْنِ الْجِنِّ وَ الإنْسِ وَ شَرَّ فَسَقَةِ الْعَرَبِ وَ الْعَجَمِ

It is Mustahab to recite while being parallel to al-Hajar al-Aswad:

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلهَ إلاَّ اللّهُ وَحْدَهُ لا شَریکَ لَهُ وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّد عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ آمَنْتُ بِاللّهِ وَ کَفَرْتُ بِالْجِبْتِ وَ الطّاغُوتِ وَ اللاّتِ وَ الْعُزّى وَ بِعِبادَةِ الشَّیْطانِ وَ بِعِبادِةِ کُلِّ نِدٍّ یُدْعى مِنْ دُونِ اللّهِ

And then go closer to al-Hajar al-Aswad and if it is possible put the hand on it and recite:

أَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ الَّذی هَدانا لِهذاوَ ما کُنّا لِنَهْتَدِىَ لَوْ لا أَنْ هَدانَا اللّهُ سُبْحانَ اللّهِ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ وَ لا إِلهَ إِل اللّهُ وَ اللّهُ أَکْبَرُ، اَللّهُ أَکْبَرُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ وَ اللّهُ أَکْبَرُ مِمّا أَخْشى وَ اَحْذَرُ، لا إِلهَ إلاَّ اللّهُ وَحْدَهُ ل شَریکَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْکُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ یُحْیی وَ یُمیتُ وَ یُمیتُ وَ یُحْیی وَ هُوَ حَىٌّ لا یَمُوتُ بِیَدِهِ الْخَیْرُ وَ هُوَ عَلى کُلِّ شَىْء قَدیرٌ

And then send Salawat to prophet (s.a.) and his family (a.s.) and salutations to the prophets in the same way that he/she saluted while entering the mosque.

And then say:

                       نَّى اُؤمِنُ بِوَعدِکَ وَ أوُفی بِعَهْدِک

It is mentioned in a reliable hadeeth that when you reach the al-Hajar al-Aswad raise your hands and praise and thank Allah and send Salawat to Prophet (s.a.) and ask Allah to accept your Hajj, and kiss the al-Hajar al-Aswad if it is possible. If it is not, then touch it with your hand and if this is also not possible either, point to it and say:

أَللّهُمَّ أَمانَتی أَدَّیْتُها وَ میثاقی تَعاهَدْتُهُ لِتَشْهَدَ لی بِالْمُوفاةِ أَللّهُمَّ تَصْدیقاً بِکِتابِکَ وَ عَلى سُنَّتِ نَبِیِّکَ صَلَواتُکَ عَلَیْهِ وَ آلِهِ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا اِلهَ إِلاَّ اللّهُ وَحْدَهُ ل شَریکَ لَهُ وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ آمَنْتُ بِاللّهِ وَ کَفَرْتُ بِالْجِبْتِ وَ الطّاغُوتِ وَ الّلاتِ وَ الْعُزّى وَ عِبادَةِ الشَّیْطانِ وَ عِبادَةِ کُلِّ نِدٍّ یُدْعى مِنْ دُونِ اللّهِ

And if you cannot recite all of this recite some of it and say:

أَللّهُمَّ إِلَیْکَ بَسَطْتُ یَدی وَ فیم عِنْدَکَ عَظُمَتْ رَغْبَتى فَاقْبَلْ سُبْحَتی وَ اغْفِرلی وَ ارْحَمْنی، اَللّهُمَّ إِنِّی أَعُوذُ بِکَ مِنَ الْکُفْرِ وَ الْفَقْرِ وَ مَواقِفِ الْخِزْىَ فِى الدُّنْیا وَ الآخِرَةِ

It is Mustahab to say the following during Tawaf:

اَللّهُمَّ اِنّى أَسْئَلُکَ بِاسْمِکَ الَّذی یُمْشى بِهِ عَلى طَلَلِ الْمآءِ کَم یَمْشی بِهِ عَلى جُدَدِ الأرْضِ وَ اَسْئَلُکَ بِاسْمِکَ الَّذی تَهْتَزُّ بِه اَقْدامُ مَلائِکَتِکَ وَ اَسْئَلُکَ بِاسمِکَ الَّذی دَعاکَ بِهِ مُوسى مِنْ جانِبِ الطُّورِ فَاسْتَجَبْتَ لَهُ وَاَلْقَیْتَ عَلَیْهِ مَحَبَّةً مِنْکَ وَ اَسْئَلُکَ بِاسْمِکَ الَّذی غَفَرْتَ بِه لِمـُحَمَّد صَلَّى اللّهُ عَلَیْهِ وَ آلِهِ ما تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ وَ ما تَأَخَّرَ وَ اَتْمَمْتَ عَلَیْهِ نِعْمَتَکَ اَنْ تَفْعَلَ بى کَذا وَ کذ

And then ask your wishes and requests instead of “کذا و کذا” from almighty Allah.
Also it is Mustahab to recite during Tawaf:

                                  اَللّهُمَّ اِنّی اِلَیْکَ فَقْیرٌ وَ اِنّی خآئِفٌ مُسْتَجیرٌ فَلا تُغَیِّرْ جِسْمی وَ لاتُبَدِّلْ اِسْمی

Then send Salawat to Mohammad (a.s.) and his family (a.s.), especially when reaching the door of the house of Ka’ba, it is Mustahab for a pilgrim that when he/she reaches the Hijr Ismael to look at the top of it and recite:

                          اَللّهُمَّ اَدْخِلْنی الْجَنَّةَ وَ اَجِرْنی مِنَ النّارِ بِرَحْمَتِکَ وَ عافِنی مِنَ السُّقْمِ وَ اَوْسِعْ عَلَىَّ مِنَ الرِّزْقِ الْحَلالِ وَ ادْرَ عَنّی شَرَّ فَسَقَةِ الْجِنِّ وَ الإنْسِ وَ شَرَّ فَسَقَةِ الْعَرَبِ وَ الْعَجَمِ

And when he/she passes the Hijr then he/she should recite:

                        یا ذَ المَنِّ وَ الطَّوْلِ یاذَا الْجُودِ وَ الْکَرَمِ اِنَّ عَمَلی ضَعیفٌ فَضاعِفْهُ لی وَ تَقَبَّلْهُ مِنّی اِنَّکَ اَنْتَ السَّمیعُ الْعَلیمُ

And when this pilgrim reaches the Rukn Yamani (the fourth corner of the Ka’ba) she/she should raise the hand and recite:

ی اَللّهُ یا وَلِىَّ الْعافِیَةِ، وَ خالِقَ الْعافِیَةِ، وَ رازِقَ الْعافِیَةِ، وَ الْمُنْعِمَ بِالْعافِیَةِ، وَ الْمُتَفَضِّلَ بِالْعافِیَةِ عَلَىَّ وَ عَلى جَمِیعِ خَلْقِکَ، یا رَحْمنَ الدُّنْیا وَ الآخِرَةِ وَ رَحِیمَهُما، صَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّد وَ آلِ مُحَمَّد، وَ ارْزُقْنَا الْعافِیَةَ، وَ تَمامَ الْعافِیَةِ، وَ شُکْرَ الْعافِیَةِ فِی الدُّنْیا وَ الآخِرَةِ، یا اَرْحَمَ الرّاحِمِینَ

And then turn the face to Ka’ba and recite:

                          اَلْحَمْدُلِلّهِ الَّذِی شَرَّفَکِ وَ عَظَّمَکِ، وَ الْحَمْدُلِلّهِ الَّذی بَعَثَ مُحَمَّداً نَبِیّاً، وَ جَعَلَ عَلِیّاً اِماماً، اَللّهُمَّ اهْدِ لَهُ خِیارَ خَلْقِکَ، وَ جَنِّبْهُ شِرارَ خَلْقِکَ

And when he/she reaches between Rukn Yamani and al-Hajar la-Aswad should recite:

                                  رَبَّنا آتِنا فِی الدُّنْیا حَسَنَةً وَ فِی الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَ قِنا عَذابَ النّار

And in the seventh round when the pilgrim reaches the Mustajar (3) it is Mustahab that he/she opens his/her hands and place the face and abdomen on the wall of Ka’ba and recites:

                              اَللّهُمَّ الْبَیْتُ بَیْتُکَ، وَ الْعَبْدُ عَبْدُکَ، وَ هذا مَقامُ الْعائِذِ بِکَ مِنَ النّارِ

And then confess to his/her sins and asks forgiveness from the almighty Allah, that will be accepted Allah willing. Then after that, recite

اَللّهُمَّ مِنْ قِبَلِکَ الرَّوْحُوَ الْفَرَجُ وَ الْعافِیَةُ، اَللّهُمَّ اِنَّ عَمَلِی ضَعِیفٌ فَضاعِفْهُ لِی، وَ اغْفِرْ لِی مَااطَّلَعْتَ عَلَیْهِ مِنّی وَ خَفِىَ عَلى خَلْقِکَ، اَسْتَجِیرُ بِاللّهِ مِنَ النّار

And pray for anything that he/she wants, and put the hand on Rukn Yamani which is situated before Rukn al-Hajar al-Aswad and then comes close to al-Hajar al-Aswad and complete Tawaf and recite:

                                  اَللّهُمَّ قَنِّعْنی بِما رَزَقْتَنی وَ بارِکْ لی فیما آتَیْتَنی

And it is Mustahab for the performer of Tawaf that he/she rubs his/her hand on Rukns (pl. or Rukn; four corners) of Ka’ba and al-Hajar al-Aswad in each round and recite while touching the Hajar
And recite:

                               أمانَتی أدَّیتُها وَ میثاقی تَعاهَدْتُهُ لِتَشْهَدَ لی بِالْـمُوافاةِ

Although performing lots of these acts is not possible in the time of obligatory Hajj and may cause disturbance to the other pilgrims, the pilgrim should perform any of them which is possible that does not cause disturbance and trouble.

It is Mustahab that in the prayer of Tawaf the pilgrim should recite “Tawhid Sura” after the Hamd in the first Rak'at and “Sura of قل یا ایها الکافرون” in the second Rak'at, and praise and thank Allah after the prayer and send Salawat to Mohammad (s.a.) and his family (a.s.) and ask Allah for acceptance. It has been mentioned in some of the hadeeth that Imam Sadiq (a.s.) prostrated after the prayer of Tawaf and said:

سَجَدَ لَکَ وَجْهِی تَعَبُّداً وَرِقّاً، لااِلهَ اِلاّ اَنْتَ حَقّاً حَقّاً، أَلاَْوَّلُ قَبْلَ کُلِّ شَىْء، وَ الاْخِرُ بَعْدَ کُلِّ شَىْء، وَ ه اَنَا ذابَیْنَ یَدَیکَ ناصِیَتِی بِیَدِکَ، فَاغْفِرْلِی، اِنَّهُ لایَغْفِرُ الذَّنْبَ الْعَظِیمَ غَیْرُکَ، فَاغْفِرْلِی، فَإنِّی مُقِرٌّ بِذُنُوبِی عَلى نَفْسِی، وَ لایَدْفَعُ الذَّنْبَ الْعَظِیمَ غَیْرُکَ

And after the prostration the face of his holiness were wet with tears.

It is also Mustahab that after the prayer of Tawaf and before Sa’y the pilgrim goes to Zamzam well and pour some water on his/her head and back and abdomen and recite:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ عِلْماً نَافِعاً وَ رِزقاً واسِعاً وَ شِفاءً مِنْ کُلِّ داء وَ سُقْم

The pilgrim should go close to al-Hajar al-Aswad after performing the acts of Tawaf.
It is Mustahab to go to Safa from the door which is parallel to al-Hajar al-Aswad and go gently above the Safa and look at the house of Ka’ba and look at the Rukn of al-Hajar al-Aswad and praise and thank Allah and consider the divine gifts and then recite:

“الله اکبر” seven times,
“الحمد لله” seven times,
“لا اله الّا الله” seven times and

                      إِلهَ إِلاَّ اللّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاشَریکَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْکُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ یُحْیی وَ یُمیتُ وَ هُوَ حَىٌّ لایَمُوتُ بِیَدِهِ الْخَیْرُ وَ هُوَ عَلى کُلِّ شَئ قَدیرٌ

Seven times, and then send Salawat to Mohammad (s.a.) and his family (a.s.) three times and recite:

                      اَللّهُ أَکْبَرُ عَلى ما هَدانا، وَ الْحَمْدُلِلّهِ عَلى ما اَبْلانا، وَ الْحَمْدُلِلّهِ الْحَىِّ القَیُّومِ، وَ الْحَمْدُلِلّهِ الدّآئمِ

And repeat this three times.Then recite three times:

                      اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لا إِلهَ إِلاَّ اللّهُوَاَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّد عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ لا نَعْبُدُ إلاّ إیّاهُ مُخْلِصینَ لَهُ الدّینَ وَ لَوْ کَرِهَ المُشْرِکُونَ

And then recite three times:

                               أَللّهُمَّ إنّی أسْئَلُکَ الْعَفْوَ وَ الْعافِیَةَ وَ الیَقینَ فی الدُّنْیا وَ الآخِرَةِ

Also recite three times:

                              اَللّهُمَّ آتِنا فِی الدُّنْیا حَسَنَةً وَ فِی الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَ قِنا عَذابَ النّارِ

And then recite each of following phrases one hundred times:

                          “الله اکبر”, “لا اله الّا الله”, “الحمد لله” and “سبحان الله”.

Then it is Mustahab that the pilgrim recites the following:

ل إِلهَ إِلاَّ اللّهُ وَحْدَهُ وَحْدَهُ، أنْجَزَ وَعْدَهُ و نَصَرَ عَبْدَهُ، وَ غَلَبَ الأَحْزابَ وَحْدَهُ، فَلَهُ المُلْکُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَحْدَهُ اَللّهُمَّ بارِکْ لی فی الْمَوْتِ وَ فیما بَعْدَ المَوتِ، اَللّهُمَّ إِنّی اَعُوذُ بِکَ مِنْ ظُلْمَةِ الْقَبْرِ وَ وَحْشَتِهِ، اَللّهُمَّ اَظِلَّنی فی ظِلِّ عَرْشِکَ یَوْمَ لاظِلَّ إلاّ ظِلُّکَ

And he/she should repeat many times that he/she confides his/her religion, self, family and assets to Allah and then recite:

اَسْتَوْدِعُ اللّهَ الرَّحْمنَ الرَّحیمَ الَّذی لایَضیعُ وَدایِعَهُ دینی وَ نَفْسی وَ أَهْلی اَللّهُمَّ اسْتَعْمِلْنی عَلى کِتابِکَ وَ سُنَّةِ نَبِیِّکَ وَ تَوَفَّنی عَلى مِلَّتِهِ وَ اَعِذْنی مِنَ الْفِتْنَةِ

And then recite “الله اکبر” three times and if he/she cannot perform this entire act, then he/she should recite as much possible.

Also it is Mustahab to recite this prayer:

اَللّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لی کُلَّ ذَنْب أذْنَبْتُهُ قَطُّ، فَإِنْ عُدْتُ فَعُدْ عَلَىَّ بِالْمَغْفِرةِ، فَإِنَّکَ أنْتَ الغَفُورُ الرَّحیمُ، اَللّهُمَّ افْعَلْ بی ما أَنْتَ أَهْلُهُ، فَإِنَّکَ إِنْ تَفْعَلْ بی ما أنْتَ أهْلُهُ تَرْحَمْنى، وَ إِنْ تُعَذِّبْنی فَأَنْتَ غَنِىٌّ عَنْ عَذابی، وَ أَنَ مُحْتاجٌ إلى رَحْمَتِکَ، فَیامَنْ اَنَا مُحْتاجٌ إلى رَحْمَتِهِ إرْحَمْنی، اَللّهُمَّ لاتَفْعَل بی م اَنَا اَهْلُهُ، فَإِنَّکَ إنْ تَفْعَلْ بی ما اَنَا أهْلُهُ تُعَذِّبْنی وَ لم تَظْلِمْنی، اَصْبَحْتُ اَتَّقی عَدْلَکَ وَ لاأَخافُ جَوْرَکَ، فَیامَنْ هُوَ عَدْلٌ لایَجُورُ اِرْحَمْنی

It is Mustahab for a pilgrim to perform Sa’y on foot and perform the Harwala (jogging) from the marked place; it means that he/she goes a little faster and if he/she is on a cart, then should speed up the cart and walk normally after that to Marwah and perform like this in return. Harwala is not for women and it is Mustahab to cry to the presence of Allah and pray a lot while performing Sa’y.

The acts which are Mustahab in the Ihram of Umrah are also Mustahab in the Ihram of Hajj. When a person wears Ihram and comes out of Mecca and goes to the high places around Mecca, he /she should recite Labbayk with a loud voice and when one notices Mena should recite

                                   اللّهُمَّ إیّاکَ أرجو و إیّاکَ أدْعُو فَبَلِّغْنی أملی وَ أصلحْ لی عَمَلِی

And continue this way with a submissive heart and body praising Allah and when he/she reaches Mena should recite:

                                  اَلْحَمْدُلِلّهِ الَّذی اَقْدَمَنِیها صالِحاً فِی عافِیَة وَ بَلَّغَنِی هذَا الْمَکانَ :

and then say:

                            اَللّهُمَّ هذِهِ مِنى وَ هِىَ مِمّا مَنَنْتَ بِهِ عَلَیْنا مِنَ الْمَناسِکِ، فَأَسْئَلُکَ اَنْ تَمُنَّ عَلَىَّ بِما مَنَنْتَ عَلى أنْبِیآئِکَ، فَإنَّما اَنَا عَبْدُکَ وَ فِی قَبْضَتِک

If it is possible it is better that the pilgrim stays the night of Arafa in Mena and perform Allah’s worship. It is better to perform worship and prayers in al-Khaif Mosque and then recite Ta’qibat (followings of the prayer) after the dawn prayer until sunset and then go to Arafat. If he/she wants to go after the sunset there is no problem, but the tradition says that it is better to pass Wadi Mohassar before the complete sunset and going before morning is Makrooh, unless there is a necessity or fear of congestion of the crowds.

One should recite this prayer when he/she goes to Arafat:

اَللّهُمَّ اِلَیْکَ صَمَدْتُ وَاِیّاکَ اعْتَمَدْتُ وَ وَجْهَکَ اَرَدْتُ اَسْئَلُکَ اَنْ تُبارِکَ لى فى رِحْلَتى وَ اَنْ تَقْضِىَ لی حاجَتى وَ اَنْ تَجْعلَنى مِمَّنْ تُباهى بِهِ الْیَوْمَ مَنْ هُوَ اَفْضَلُ مِنّی

And repeat Labbayk until reaching Arafat.

Although, performing lots of these Mustahab acts is difficult nowadays, the pilgrim can perform them as much as he/she can, and if he/she has the intention of performing all of them, Allah will give him/her the benefits and blessings; Allah willing.

Mustahab Acts in Wuquf in Arafat:

1- Being pure in the state of Wuquf.

2- Performing Ghusl and it is better to be near noontime

3- Abstaining from all means and causes of losing concentration in order to have the heart noticing the presence of Allah.

4- Performing Wuquf in the flat area behind the hill. Going up the hill is Makrooh.

5- Performing the noon and afternoon prayer at the beginning of the time with one Azan and two Iqama.

6- Noticing the heart to Allah and praising and praying to Allah, and then reciting الله اکبر one hundred times and Tawhid Sura one hundred times and asking anything from Allah and asking for refuge to Allah from the accursed Satan and also reciting this prayer:

اَللّهُمَّرَبَّ الْمَشاعِرِ کُلِّها، فُکَّ رَقَبَتِی مِنَ النّارِ، وَ اَوْسِعْعَلَىَّ مِنْ رِزْقِکَ الْحَلالِ، وَ ادْرَأْ عَنِّی شَرَّ فَسَقَةِالْجِنِّ وَ الاِْنْسِ، اَللّهُمَّ لاتَمْکُرْبى، وَ لاتَخْدَعْنِى، وَلاتَسْتَدْرِجْنِى، اَللّهُمَّ إنِّی أَسْأَلُکَ بِحَوْلِکَ وَجُودِکَ وَکَرَمِکَ وَ فَضْلِکَ وَ مَنِّکَ، یا اَسْمَعَ السّامِعِینَ، وَ یاَبْصَرَ النّاظِرِینَ، وَ یا اَسْرَعَ الْحاسِبِینَ وَ یا اَرْحَمَالرّاحِمِینَ، اَنْ تُصَلِّىَ عَلى مُحَمَّد وَ آلِ مُحَمَّد وَ أَنْتَفْعَلَ بِی (کذا و کذ

Asking for wishes, and then raising the hand to the heavens and reciting:

اَللّهُمَّ حاجَتِی اِلَیْکَ الَّتى اِنْ اَعْطَیْتَنِیها لَمْ یَضُرَّنِی ما مَنَعْتَنِی، وَ اِنْ مَنَعْتَنِیها لَمْ یَنْفَعْنِی ماَعْطَیْتَنِی، أَسْأَلُکَ خَلاصَ رَقَبَتِی مِنَ النّارِ، اَللّهُمَّإنِّی عَبْدُکَ، وَ مِلْکُ ناصِیَتِی بِیَدِکَ، وَ أَجَلِی بِعِلْمِکَ،أَسْأَلُکَ أَنْ تُوَفِّقَنِی لِما یُرْضِیکَ عَنِّی، وَ اَنْ تُسَلِّمَمِنِّی مَناسِکِی، الَّتی اَرَیْتَها خَلِیلَکَ اِبْراهِیمَ علیه السلام وَ دَلَلْتَ عَلَیْها نَبِیَّکَ مَحَمَّداً صَلَّى اللّهُ عَلَیْهِ وَ آلِهِاَللّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِی مِمَّنْ رَضِیتَ عَمَلَهُ، وَ اَطَلْتَ عُمْرَهُ، وَ اَحْیَیْتَهُ بَعْدَ الْمَوتِ

7- Reciting this prayer:

لا اِلهَاِلاَّ اللّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاشَرِیکَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْکُ وَ لَهُالْحَمْدُ، یُحْیِی وَ یُمِیتُ، وَ هُوَ حَىٌّ لایَمُوتُ، بِیَدِهِالْخَیْرُ وَ هُوَ عَلى کُلِّ شَىْء قَدیرٌ. اَللّهُمَّ لَکَ الْحَمْدُکَالَّذی تَقُولُ، وَ خَیْراً مِمّا نَقُولُ، وَ فَوْقَ ما یَقُولُالْقائِلُونَ. اَللّهُمَّ لَکَ صَلاتى وَ نُسُکی وَ مَحیْاىَ وَ مَماتی وَلَکَ تُراثی وَ بِکَ حَوْلى وَ مِنْکَ قُوَّتی. اَللّهُمَّ اِنّی اَعُوذُبِکَ مِنَ الْفَقْرِ، وَ مِنْ وَساوِسِ الْصُّدُورِ، وَ مِنْ شَتاتِالاْمْرِ، وَ مِنْ عَذابِ الْقَبْرِ. اَللّهُمَّ اِنّی اَسْئَلُکَ خَیْرَالرِّیاحِ وَ اَعُوذُ بِکَ مِنْ شَرِّ ما یَجىءُ الرِّیاحُ، وَ اَسْئَلُکَخَیْرَ اللَّیْلِ وَ خَیْرَ النَّهارِ. اَللّهُمَّ اجْعَلْ فی قَلْبینُوراً، وَ فی سَمْعی وَ بَصَری نُوراً، وَ فی لَحْمی وَ دَمی وَ عِظامیوَ عُرُوقی وَ مَقْعَدی وَ مَقامی وَ مَدْخَلی وَ مَخْرَجی نُوراً، وَاَعْظِمُ لی نُوراً، یا رَبِّ یَوْمَ اَلْقاکَ، اِنَّکَ عَلى کُلِّ شَىْءقَدیرٌ

And one should also give out charities and alms as much as possible in these days.

8- The Pilgrim should face Ka’ba and recite each of these statements one hundred times:

سبحان الله”، “الله اکبر”، “ماشاء الله لا قوّة الِّا بالله”، “أشْهَدُأنْ لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وَحْدَهُ لا شریک لَهُ، لَهُ المُلکُ، وَ لَهُالحَمدُ، یُحیی و یُمیتُ، وَ یُمیتُ و یُحیی، وَ هُوَ حَىٌّ لا یُمُوتُ،بِیَدِهِ الخَیر، وَ هُوَ عَلى کُلِّ شَیء قَدیرٌ

And then recite ten verses from the beginning of Sura Baqara and then recite sura Tawhid three times and Ayat al-Kursi to the end, then recite:

اِنَّ رَبَّکُمُ اللّهُالَّذی خَلَقَ السَّمواتِ وَ الاَْرْضَ فِی سِتَّةِ اَیّام ثُمَّ اسْتَوىعَلىَ الْعَرْشِ یُغْشِى اللَّیْلَ النَّهارَ یَطْلُبُهُ حَثِیثاً وَالشَّمْسَ وَ الْقَمَرَ وَ النُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرات بِاَمْرِهِ اَلا لَهُالْخَلْقُ وَ الاَْمْرُ تَبارَکَ اللّهُ رَبُّ الْعالَمِینَ. اُدْعُورَبَّکُمْ تَضَرُّعاً وَ خُفْیَةً إنَّهُ لا یُحِبُّ المُعْتَدینَ. وَ لتُفسِدوا فى الأرضِ بَعدَ إصلاحِهَا و ادْعُوهُ خَوْفاً وَ طَمَعاً إنَّرَحْمَةَ اللّهِ قَریْبٌ مِنَ الُمحْسِنینَ

And then recite the قل اعوذ بربّ الفلق and قل اعوذ بربّ النّاس Suras.

Then one should thank Allah(swt) for the many blessings which he/she has been bestowed, one by one, especially for the gift of family and assets which Allah(swt) has given him/her, and after that recite.

                                  اَللّهُمَّ لَکَ الْحَمْدُ عَلى نَعْمآئِکَ الَّتِی لاتُحصى بِعَدَد و لاتُکافى بِعَمَل

And then one should thank Allah(swt) with the verses which thank Allah(swt), and praise Allah(swt) with the verses which praise Allah(swt), and saying Allah is the greatest (Takbir) with the verses of Takbir, and saying Allah(swt) is the only god with the verses having this meaning, and send salawat to Mohammad (s.a.) and his family (a.s.) many times and then one should call Allah(swt) by any of his beautiful names, mentioned in the holy Qur'an and then call Allah(swt) by the names which are mentioned at the end of Hashr Sura, that are as follows:

                                اللّه، عالِمُ الْغَیْبِ وَ الشَّهادَةِ، الرَّحْمنُ الرَّحیمِ، اَلْمَلِکُ القُدُّوسُ، السَّلام، اَلْمؤمِنُ المُهَیْمِنُ، العَزیزُ الْجَبّارُ، اَلْمُتَکَبِّرُ، الْخالِقُ الْبارِىءُ، الْمُصَوِّرُ

And thereafter one should recite this prayer:

أَسْأَلُکَیا اَللّهُ یا رَحْمنُ بِکُلِّ اسْم هُوَ لَکَ وَ أَسْأَلُکَ بِقُوَّتِکَوَ عِزَّتِکَ وَ جَمِیعِ ما اَحَاطَ بِهِ عِلْمُکَ وَ بَاَرْکانِکَکُلِّهَا وَ بِحَقِّ رَسُولِکَ صَلَواتُکَ عَلَیْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ بِاسْمِکَالاَْکْبَرِ الاَْکْبَرِ وَ بِاسْمِکَ الْعَظِیمِ الَّذِی مَنْ دَعاکَبِهِ کانَ حَقّاً عَلَیْکَ اَنْ لا تُخَیْبَهُ و بِاسْمِکَ الاْعْظَمِالاْعْظَمِ الَّذِى مَنْ دَعاکَ به کانَ حَقّاً عَلَیْکَ اَنْ لاتَرُدَّهُوَ اَنْ تُعْطِیَهُ ما سَأَلَ وَ اَنْ تَغْفِرَ لِی جَمِیعَ ذُنُوبِی فِیجَمِیعِ عِلْمِکَ فِىَّ

And then one should ask anything that he/she wants from Allah (swt) and ask Allah (swt) to give him/her the opportunity of performing Hajj next year and every year.Recite:

                                      أسئلک الجنة   and أستغفر الله ربّی و أتوب إلیه seventy times each.

Then recite this prayer:

                          اَللّهُمَّفُکَّنی مِنَ النّارِ وَأوْسِعْ عَلىَّ مِنْ رِزْقِکَ الْحَلالِالطَیِّبِ وَ ادْرَأ عَنِّى شَرَّفَسَقَةِ الجِنَّ وَ الإنْسِ وَ شَرَّفَسِقَةِ العَرَبِ وَ الْعَجَمِ

9- It is Mustahab for the pilgrim to recite nearer to the time of sunset:

اَللّهُمَّاِنّى اَعُوذُبِکَ مِنَ الْفَقْرِ وَ مِنْ تَشَتُّتِ الاُْمُورِ وَ مِنْشَرِّ ما یُحْدِثُ بِاللَّیْلِ وَ النَّهارِ اَمْسى ظُلْمى مُسْتَجیربِعَفْوِکَ وَ اَمْسى خَوْفى مُسْتَجیراً بِاَمانِکَ وَ اَمْسى ذُلّىمُسْتَجیراً بِعِزَّتِکَ وَ اَمْسى وَجْهی الْفانى مُسْتَجیراً بِوَجْهِکَالْباقى یا خَیْرَ مَنْ سُئِلَ وَ یا اَجْوَدَ مَنْ اَعْطى جَلِّلْنىبِرَحْمَتِکَ وَ اَلْبِسْنى عافِیَتَکَ وَ اصْرِفْ عَنّی شَرَّ جَمیعِخَلْقِکَ

It is important to notice that there are lots of Duas for this holy day and reciting them as much as possible is proper, and it is very good to recite the Duas of al-Sahifah al-Kamilah and the Duas of Imam Hussein (a.s.) and Imam Sajjad (a.s.)
The pilgrim should recite after the sunset:

اَللّهُمَّلاتَجْعَلْهُ آخِرَالْعَهْدِ مِنْ هذَا الْمَوْقِفِ، وَ ارْزُقْنیهِ مِنْقابِل اَبَداً ما اَبْقَیْتَنِی، وَ اقْلِبْنِی الْیَوْمَ مُفْلِحمُنْجِحاً مُسْتَجاباً لِی، مَرْحُوماً مَغْفُوراً لِی، بِاَفْضَلِ میَنْقَلِبُ بِهِ الْیَوْمَ اَحَدٌ مِنْ وَفْدِکَ، وَ حُجّاجِ بَیْتِکَالْحَرامِ، وَ اجْعَلْنِى الْیَوْمَ مِنْ اَکْرَمِ وَفْدِکَ عَلَیْکَ، وَاَعْطِنِی اَفْضَلَ ما اَعْطَیْتَ اَحَداً مِنْهُمْ مِنَ الْخَیْرِ وَالْبَرَکَةِ وَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَ الرِّضْوانِ وَ الْمَغْفِرَةِ، وَ بارِکْلِی فِیما اَرْجِعُ اِلَیهِ مِنْ اَهْل اَوْ مال أوْ قَلِیل اَوْ کَثِیر،وَ بارِکْ لَهُمْ فِىّ

And recite many times:

                                       اللّهُمَّ اَعْتِقْنی مِنَ النَّار

It is Mustahab that the pilgrim goes with a submissive heart and body to Muzdalifah from Arafat and asks for forgiveness from Allah, and when he/she reaches Tall-e-Sorkh (red hill) should recite:

                                                      اللّهُمَّ ارحَمْ تَوَقُّفی وَ زِد فی عَمَلی وَ سَلِّمْ لی دینی وَ تَقَبَّلْ مَناسکی

And he/she should not hurry in walking and not harm anyone and it is Mustahab to delay the prayers of sunset and Isha’ until Muzdalifah, even if third of the night passes. And conjunct between two prayers with one Azan and two Iqama, but by noticing to the fact that sometimes reaching Mash'ar is delayed in our time, it is better to perform the prayers of sunset and Isha’ in Arafat in these conditions and then he/she should depart the place. And it is Mustahab to spend that night praying to Allah as much as it is possible and reciting this prayer:

اَللّهُمَّ هذِهِ جُمَعُ، اَللّهُمَّ اِنّى اَسْئَلُکَ اَنْ تَجْمَعَ لى فیها جَوامِعَ اَللّهُمَّ لاتُؤْیِسْنى مِنَ الْخَیْرِ الَّذى سَئَلْتُکَ اَنْتَجْمَعَهُ لى فى قَلْبى وَ اَطْلُبُ مِنْکَ اَنْ تُعَرِّفَنى معَرَّفْتَ اَوْلِیآئَکَ فى مَنْزِلى هذا وَ اَنْ تَقِیَنى جَوامِعَالشَّرِّ

It is Mustahab to praise and thank Allah after the dawn prayer, and recite as much as possible from the gifts of almighty Allah and send Salawat to Mohammad (s.a.) and his family (a.s.) Recite this Dua:

اَللّهُمَّرَبَّ الْمَشْعَرِالْحَرامِ فُکَّ رَقَبتى مِنَ النّارِ وَ اَوْسِعْعَلَیَّ مِنْ رِزْقِکَ الْحَلالِ وَ ادْرَأ عَنّى شَرَّ فَسَقَةِ الْجِنِّوَ الاِنْسِ اَللّهُمَّ اَنْتَ خَیْرُ مَطْلُوب اِلَیْهِ وَ خَیْرُمَدْعُوٍّ وَ خَیْرُ مَسْئُول وَ لِکُلِّ وافِد جائِزَةٌ فَاجْعَلْجائِزَتى فى مَوْطِنى هذا اَنْ تُقیلَنى عَثْرَتى وَ تَقَبَّلْ مَعْذِرَتىوَ اَنْ تَجاوَزَ عَنْ خَطیئَتى ثُمَّ اجْعَلِ التَّقْوى مِنَ الدُّنْیزادی

It is Mustahab to collect pebbles for Ramy in Mena from Mash'ar and the sum of seventy pebbles (and collect a little more because some of them may not hit the Jamarat) and it is Mustahab to walk one hundred steps faster when reaching Wadi “Mohassar” in the of Mash'ar to Mena and recite:

                                                اَللّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ لی عَهْدى وَ اقْبِلْ تَوْبَتی وَ أجِبْ دَعْوَتی وَ اخْلُفْنی فیمَنْ تَرَکْتُ بَعْدی

Mustahab actions in Ramy al-Jamarat

1- Having ablution while performing Ramy.

2- Reciting this prayer while having pebbles in the hand:

                                                    اللّهُمَّ هذِهِ حَصَیَاتی فَاَحْصِهِنَّ لی وَ ارفَعْهُنَّ فی عَمَلِی

3- Reciting Takbir with each pebble that is thrown.

4- Reciting this prayer after thowing each pebble:

اَللّهُاَکْبَرُ، اَللّهُمَّ ادْحَرْ عَنِّی الشَّیْطانَ، اَللّهُمَّ تَصْدِیقبِکِتابِکَ وَ عَلى سُنَّةِ نَبِیِّکَ مُحَمَّد صَلَّى اللّهُ عَلَیْهِ وَآلِهِ، اَللّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ لِی حَجّاً مَبْرُوراً، وَ عَمَلمقْبُولاً، وَ سَعْیاً مَشْکُوراً، وَ ذَنْباً مَغْفُوراً

5- If it is possible, observe a distance of five or seven and a half meter between the performer and the Jamarah al-Aqaba and stand close to the Jamarah al-Uula and the Jamarah al-Wusta.

6- Performing Ramy on al-Jamarah al-Aqaba facing the Jamarah and with back to the Qibla and performing Ramy on the Jamarah al-Uula and al-Jamarah al-Wusta standing with back to Qibla.

7- Reciting this prayer after returning Mena to his/her position

                          اللّهُمَّ بِکَ وَثِقْتُ، وَ عَلَیْکَ تَوَکَّلْتُ، فَنِعْمَ الرَّبُّ، وَ نِعْمَ الْمَوْلى، وَ نِعْمَ النَّصیرُ

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